VOLUME V. Plates 13, 14.





CONTENTS. PAGE New or CRITICAL SPECIES OF ACER, : . : A New Srupy or MICROSERIS, - - > : 2 SomE PHACELIA SEGREGATES, - - ; ; ar : SORKGATES OF VIOLA CANADENSIS, - : 24 ; Some New ACAULESCENT VIOLETS, - - - - - 29 REVISION OF ROMANZOFFIA, - - - - 34 REVISION OF CAPNOREA, - - - - : - 42 New SPECIES oF CRYPTANTHE, - ` . - ` 8 A Fascicte oF New Composit&,-— - : . i BA New SPECIES OF APOCYNUM, - : - . - 64 New SPECIES or ERIOGONUM, - - - - - OF A STUDY or EUTHAMIA, - - - - - - 72 New SPECIES oF MONARDELLA, - - - - - 80 New orn NoTEWwọoRTHY VIOLETS, - - : - - 87 New on NoTewortHy Species. XXX, - - - - 107 Tae Genus VIOLA IN MINNESOTA, - - - - 115 NoviTaTes TEXANÆ, - - : - - - 138 PLATYSTEMON AND ITS ALLIES, - - - - - 189 THREE New RANUNCULI, - - - - - - 194 New Spectres or POLYGONUM, - - - 197 REVISION oF ESCHSCHOLTZIA, - - - - - - 205 A New PApAVERACEOUS GENUS, - r 293 A STUDY OF DENDROMECON, - < - - - 295 SUGGESTIONS REGARDING SANGUINARIA, , : - - 306






Botany in the Catholic University of America,

o /


At the conclusion of the fourth volume of PITTONIA I was resolved, in view of the considerable loss of money involved in a publication distributed so almost gratuitously, to discontinue it, and said so to several of my friends. The appeals that have since come, for its continuation, from various botanists in several parts of the world, have induced me to offer still another volume ; and an instalment of Volume V will soon be ready. The price of Part 26, will be One Dollar. The publication will no longer be given in exchange, and will be sent only to

such institutions and individuals as shall be enrolled on a new eee aeneae a emesa, ey _ Subscription list. The price of the whole volume will be Three

Dollars. Nevertheless, as we make no promise to complete the volume within a year, it will be as well that only the price of Part 26 be sent in advance. Epwarp L. GREENE. CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D. C., 14 August, 1902.


For about a half century past, it has been the received opinion that certain maples mostly of low and bushy habit, occupying our western mountain districts all the way from the borders of Mexico to Alaska, and from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, were all to be referred to one species, Acer glabrum of Torrey.

That view has long seemed to me unsupported; and a some- what careful examination of the copious material in my own . herbarium, supplemented by that of the Canadian Geological Survey, has convinced me of the thorough validity of Hooker’s A. Douglasii, An inspection of some originals of Nuttall’s 4, tripartitum preserved in the herbarium at the New York Botani- cal Garden, has led to the reinstatement, in my mind, of that species. Certain others are here to be named and defined as new.

A. SUBSERRATUM. Evidently more than a mere bush, doubt- less a small tree, the long wand-like branches with a smooth dark-red bark, the internodes 3 or 4 inches long; leaves of broadly ovate-trigonous outline, 2 to 4 inches long, nearly as wide, broadest in the middle, truncate at the “aie base, not deeply 3-lobed, the lobes triangular, the middle one twice or thrice as large as the others, the whole margin rather evenly serrate-toothed, petioles slender, about as long as the blade; peduncles and pedicels of about equal length in fruit and the whole little surpassing the petioles: fruits 3 to 6, their wings (in half-grown state) little divergent, the sinus bet weet them oblong.

This species, as to my herbarium, rests on a part of Mr. Heller’s n. 3,089 from Lewiston, Idaho, 20 May, 1896, the specimens showing foliage nearly full grown, and tolerably well _ developed though immature fruit. The species excellently

Prrronta, Vou. V. Pages 1-82. Issued 9 Sept., 1902.


marked by a peculiar cut and indentation of the leaves; for the three lobes are as it were terminal, and the margin displays an evenness of subserrate dentation not seen in any of its allies. It is related to A. Douglasii, Hook., an inhabitant of the same region, though widely distributed; but that has a 5-lobed leaf, the lobes radiating, as it were, and their base is subcordate, while as to the margins of the lobes they are more coarsely and unevenly or doubly subserrate-toothed.

A. TORREYI. Less arborescent than the preceding, the stems _ apt to be tufted and bushy, branches slender and with smooth

red bark, the internodes 1} to 3 inches: largest leaves seldom 3 inches long, about as broad, mostly 3-lobed, occasionally with 2 small lobes developed, the base of the leaf seldom truncate usually subcordate, broader than long, the middle lobe not much larger than the other two, somewhat cuneate-obovate with 3 to 5 secondary shallow lobes and these with a few incise eeth: fruits usually 1 to 3, sometimes 5, diverging to form a broadly V-shaped sinus, or even more widely divergent.

Shrub of the Californian Sierra at middle altitudes; easily distinguished from the Rocky Mountain A. glabrum by its com- paratively broader leaf (broader than long) and relatively longer lobes, the whole much less deeply incised.

A. DIFFUSUM. A low diffusely branching subalpine shrub. occasionally several feet high ; sterile shoots slender and straight, with internodes twice exceeding the small leaves: foliage mostly trifoliolate, the leaflets cuneate obovate, 4 to # inch Jong, coarsely toothed, the slender ascending petioles often an inch long or more: linear-oblong sepals and petals greenish and striate- nerved ; stamens very short: fruits large, with broad almost oblong wings of nearly equal width from apex to base and strongly divergent.

Known only in specimens collected by myself near the summit of the West Humboldt Mountains, Nevada, 29 July, 1895. The species is noteworthy as being a low intricately branched bush,

with leaves almost as small ag those of a Sibbaldia and somewhat :


like them, whereas the fruits are very large, and exhibit a pecu- liar breadth of wing for a member of the A. glabrum group These are either solitary or in pairs or threes, and are very short- peduncled.

A. Nro-Mrxicanum. A tall clustered shrub freely branch- ing, the younger branches dark-red, perfectly glabrous, glauces- cent; leaves often trifoliolate, as often merely 3-parted or only trifid, the leaflets or segments obovate-cuneiform, deeply and doubly incised, acuminate at apex, in maturity often 3 inches long, on rather slender petioles of 24 to 5 inches: flowers rather numerous, almost umbellate, the petals commonly only half the length of the spatulate-oblong sepals; fruiting peduncles an Inch long or more, little longer than the pedicels; wings of fruit moderately divergent. |

My type specimens of this are a good fruiting specimen with well developed foliage from the mountains near Las Vegas, New Mexico, by G. R. Vasey, 1881, and a flowering one from near Santa Fe, by Mr. Heller, this bearing the number 3,525 and being named A, glabrum.

The species thus proposed do not, I think, exhaust the topic of possible good segregates of so-called A. glabrum ; but for the present, let these suffice. The next two new maples are of the _ group to which belongs A. circinatum.

A. Macount. Of the size, habit, and almost the flowers of A. circinatum, but foliage very different, the lobes of the leaf being 5 only, rather longer in proportion and more triangular in outline, radiating around the undivided body of the leaf rather than pointing (digitately) forward from it, both faces quite glabrous even when young; flowers also glabrous, other- wise as in the allied species, nearly.

Chilliwack Lake, British Columbia, James M. Macoun, 14 July, 1901. The leaves of this are smaller than in A. circina- tum, and are so free from pubescence, that this character along with radiant leaf-lobes (quite as in maples generally) led Mr. Macoun to regard this as near A. glabrum. The few specimens are scarcely out of flower.


A. MODOCENSE. Allied to the last, the somewhat larger leaves apparently as constantly 5-lobed and with lobes radiant rather than pointing forward, the surface not wholly glabrous, some soft hairs appearing along the veins in some: flowers rather small, sepals, petals and even the anthers green, or green- ish-white; sepals mostly (all the outer ones) merely oval, little exceeding the whitish petals, both sepals and petals sparingly hairy ; fruit unknown. l

Represented by only some flowering branches, with young foliage, collected near the Warm Springs, Modoc Co., California, 4 June, 1892, by M. S. Baker and Frank N utting. While the leaves here are almost those of A. Macounii the flowers are very notably different; for in both that and A. circinatum the sepals are narrow, elongated to twice or thrice the length of the petals, and are of a dark red-purple. In A. Modocense they are not only green, but very short for those of any maple at all.


Ahough the type of this genus is Chilian, the species are most numerous in California. My first critical study of them was made in San Francisco twenty years ago. I proposed then - the two new species, M. attenuata, and acuminata, both of which have since obtained universal recognition.

The researches of three more seasons carried on in that field led to the expression of views that were published in 1886, according to which, out of the heterogenous Microseris” of Gray’s Synoptical Flora, Calais of De Candolle, and Scorzonella of Nuttall were restored, and two new genera, Ptilocalais and Nothocalais were proposed; while for the genuine Microseris, the new discovery was made that its species fell into two natural groups, according as the palex of the pappus are triangular and plane, or rounded and cymbiform. In this paper I added but

' Bull. Calif. Acad. ii, 41-55. ? 7


one more to the list of species; and if during the subsequent sixteen years I have published only two or three others, it has not been for want of unclassified material accumulated in my own and other herbaria, but cheifly because certain specific names long current can not with certainty be applied to any one or another of these species. For instance: the Californian species first made known, Calais Douglasii, DC. (Microseris Douglasii, Sch. Bip. in Pollichia, xxii-xxiv, 308 (1866) ; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 210 (1873) is so vaguely characterized as to be wholly unrecognizable by the original description, which applies equally well to any one of some ten or a dozen species that are known. It is even very manifest from the several different diagnoses that have been made, first by De Candolle, then by Hooker and Arnot, and lastly by Asa Gray, upon the original materials as preserved in the Candollean and Kew Gardens herbaria, that the species is _ 4n aggregate, as existing in the very type specimens. Gray him- self still more widely extended it; and I everywhere, even in my Bay-Region Manual, have consciously left under that name (just as Gray had done) species with white pappus-palex, others show- ing them straw-colored, and some with palex of a dark smoky _ brown or almost black ; and some having glabrous, others vari- ously pubescent palee. I am persuaded, and long have been, that such characters as these are of specific value. And, as it is useless, and also very unscientific to use names for species which, however long in use, can not with even any probability of correct- ness, be applied to any particular segregate, I reject, in this paper, the name M. Douglasii altogether. I shall give, first of all, a segregation of the various elements of the M. Douglasit of Asa Gray’s writings and my own. Several of the names here published, have existed in manuscript, in my herbarium for eighteen and twenty years.

Supplementing the wealth of Microseris materials gathered by myself in California between the years 1882 and 1895, and largely retained in my own herbarium, I have before me all that has been deposited in the herbarium of the California Academy, In this I find proof of Miss Eastwood’s great zeal and diligence in collect- ing these plants during recent years. A number of the new


species herein proposed, are founded, as will be seen, on speci- mens collected by herself only, and in remote or obscure parts of California,

M. MELANOCARPHA. Plant stoutish, a foot high or less: leaves simply pinnatifid into ten or more linear-falciform entire segments, the terminal segment scarcely larger than or different from the- others: round-ovoid or even almost subglobose ; achenes short, barely two lines long, the outer ones broadest at summit, incurved, densely villous, the others oblong-linear, their ribs slenderly spinulose-serrulate; paleæ of pappus round- obovate, very obtuse, scarcely a line long, almost as broad at the obtuse summit, of a dark smoky-brown or dull-blackish, more or less villous externally, as well as appressed-scaberulous, the whitish barbellulate awn about twice as long.

The exactly typical specimens of this, were collected by my- self on the grounds of the University of California, near the library building, 1 May, 1882, and were labelled as new, under the above name, soon after. Owing to “improvements,” the plant disappeared from that spot from that year; but a year or two later I again saw it on the hills near the University. Two specimens of the original collection remain in the California Academy herbarium. I think some were sent to Asa Gray at the

time. An excellent specimen, closely enough matching these

originals, was taken by myself near Midway, in the hills east of Livermore, 3 May, 1895. The species is not otherwise known to me.. From its habitat, I hold it almost certain that this plant did not enter into the composition of original M. Douglasti. Nor could any author have been likely to omit mention of so note- worthy a character as the dark blackish hue of the pappus- pales.

M. TENUISECTA. As tall as the last, or taller, but slender ; leaves more deeply cut into very narrowly linear and widely spreading segments: heads only oval or oblong: achenes more slender, all straight, nearly or quite 3 lines long, the outer much less densely villous, the ribs of the others more shortly and not



spinulosely serrulate: palee of pappus of oval outline, a line long, glabrous and straw-colored, but strongly appressed-aca- berrulous, the barbellulate awn about 14 lines long.

Known in only a single specimen; this obtained by myself, somewhere on the plains of Fresno Co., California, in April, 1884, and now in the herbarium of the California Academy.

M. consuGENs. Leaves shorter than in the foregoing, deeply pinnatifid, the segments oblon g-linear, obtusish, spreading: scapes many, 8 to 12 inches high, heads ovoid: achenes slender, 24 lines long, between columnar and fusiform, all being slightly narrowed under the summit as well as above the base, the outer ones very rarely villous, but always smooth (lacking the ribs), the others brown and scabrous-serrulate on the ribs; pappus- paleæ 12 lines long, ovate-oblong, acute under the awn, glabrous, ultimately of a dark dull-brown, the awn paler, 2 lines long.

Collected by the writer, at Byron Springs, California, 24 March, 1889, and near Midway, Alameda Co., 3 May, 1895. This as to foliage and habit closely enough simulates M. melanocarpha, and its pappus is almost as nearly black, but the achenes are of quite a different character, in respect to which it makes an ap- proach to M. attenuata.

M. LEUcocaRPHA. Decumbent scapes 3 to 7 inches high, at flowering fully equalled by the slenderly pinnatisect foliage; in- volucres oblong or ovoid; achenes scarcely 2 lines long, linear- fusiform, all glabrous, chestnut-color with darker linear flecks, the ribs only very delicately scaberulous ; pappus much longer than the achene, the paleæ oblong-lanceolate, of a clear shining white, glabrous, the awn somewhat longer, barbellulate.

My type of this handsome species is a plant collected at Woodside, San Mateo Co., California, 4 May, 1902, by Mr. C. F. Baker, and to be distributed by him under n. 808. I also provisionally refer to the same, a sheet of my own collecting at Byron Springs in the interior of the State as long ago as 24 March, 1889. This differs from the type only in having slightly villous paleæ. Yet another sheet obtained by me near Midway,


Alameda Co.,3 May, 1895, has pales more villous, and also villous outer achenes.

M. BREVISETA. Small and slender, the foliage in reduced plants lance-linear and merely toothed, in other pinnatifid; scapes few, 3 to 6 inches high; involucres somewhat turbinate, achenes short and columnar, less than 2 lines long, the outer densely villous, the others dark chestnut-brown, their ribs rather coarsely and very roughly serrulate ; palex of the pappus ovate- oblong, longer than the achene, distinctly cymbiform, dull-white, scaberulous, tapering to « very short barbellulate awn. >

Collected by myself at San Diego, California, April, 1885, and made a part of my M. Parishii, Bull. Calif. Acad., ii, 46; but the type of that species has very different achenes and an almost black pappus. By the form of its involucre no less than by its very short pappus-awn does this species ally itself with M. pla- tycarpha notwithstanding its narrow and elongated palea.

M. ALic1#. Scapes many, stoutish, decumbent, 4 to 10 inches high, the loosely pinnatifid leaves half as long ; involucres round-ovoid ; achenes short-columnar, 23 lines long, the very villous outer ones and some next them more less curved, the glabrous ones all of a light ash-gray hue, their obtuse ribs very slenderly and delicately spinulos-serrulate: pales of the pappus round-obovate, very obtuse, barely a line long, villous without and dull smoky-brown; awn slender, scarcely barbellulate, 1% lines long. :

Santa Lucia Mountains, Monterey Co., California, May, 1897, Miss Alice Eastwood. Another ally of M. platycarpha.

M. PROXIMA. Near the last but much taller, the scapes few erect from the base and slender: inyolucres subcylindric: achenes nearly 3 lines long, slender-fusiform, all straight, the glabrous ones of a light chestnut-brown, with acute ribs that are scabrous-serrulate; round-oboyate pappus-palez villous asin the last, the awn more barbellulate.

This also is known only from Miss Eastwood’s specimens obtained at Warthau, Fresno Co., Calif., 11 May, 1893. I could


not unite this and the preceding as forms of one species on account of the marked differences in the achenes, though as to pappus they are quite alike. But the two are different habitally ; and the geographical reason for holding them apart is cogent. The Santa Lucia Mountains, and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada opposite are two very distinct climatic regions. Mr. Parish’s n. 1902, as in my herbarium, seems to represent M. prozima south of the Tehachapi Divide. It is from Elizabeth Lake, Los Angeles Co. Its pappus is rather more elongated than in the type specimens, but it does not otherwise differ.

M. FURFURACEA. Low, the many decumbent-scapes only 3 or 4 inches high and almost equalled by the loosely pinnatisect leaves, the whole plant, even to the involucres furfuraceous and also somewhat villous-hairy: involucres round-ovate achenes less than 2 lines long, nearly columnar, the outer some- what shorter, white-villous in lines between the ribs, the others brownish, their ribs minutely and closely scabrous-serrulate ; pappus of very short deltoid-ovate white glabrous paleæ broader than long, the slender fragile awn more than twice as long, the whole as long as the achene.

Only a single but excellent specimen, collected by the writer near Midway, Alameda Co., Calif., 3 May, 1895. The species may perhaps better stand in another group, near M. aphanto- carpha ; but the paleæ if not cymbiform are evidently concave.

M. oLIGANTHA. Plants small, the leaves mostly narrowly oblanceolate, obtuse and entire or sparingly toothed, some broader and more or less pinnatifid: scapes usually solitary, 3 to 6 inches high, decumbent: involucre cylindraceous, very few-flowered : achenes all very light-colored, the outer lightly villous, the inner with ribs very minutely and obscurely scab- rous-serrulate, all about 2 lines long and linear-fusiform; pap- pus of short ovate glabrous white-palee and awn about twice as long.

Near Ashland, Oregon, April, 1889, d'homes Howell, distri- buted for M. Douglasii. I have little doubt that a similar plant



from Vancouver Island, distributed by Mr. Macoun, may be the same, but I have seen no specimens in fruit.

The species next following may be regarded as segregates of M. attenuata, though the plants were not known at the time that species was published, and consequently have not affected the diagnosis of it; but several of them since have been referred to it by me as manuscript labels show. They are all at agreement with it as to the attenuation of the achene, which is only partly filled by the seed, the upper portion of the pericarp being vacant.

M. CALLICARPHA. Leaves pinnatifid but not very deeply so, the divisions from triangular to subulate-lanceolate or subfal- cate: involucres oval: achenes scarcely 3 lines long, dark chest- nut-brown, the ribs sharply serrulate-scabrous, a few of the outer villous; pappus about 4 lines long, the oval and distinctly eymbiform palea dull-brownish, white-flecked with the usual minute appressed scaberulous hair, but not in the least villous, the aun of less than twice the length of the palea,

Known to me only in a specimen preserved in my herbarium, taken out of the Botanic Garden at Berkeley in 1894, and named M. attenuata, I can not now recall from what part of Cali- fornia the seeds were derived.

M. picta. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, entire, or some with a few coarse teeth or short-lobes: involucres oblong, 4 inch long : achenes 3 lines long, slender-fusiform, rather abruptly narrowed under the pappus and much more than half filled by the seed, white, but with numerous large oblong-linear flecks of black, the ribs very sharply serrulate-scabrous, a few of the outer very villous; pappus 43 lines long, the palea cymbiform sordid- brown, oblong-lanceolate, the awn one and a half times as long.

Salinas Valley, Monterey Co., Calif., May, 1889, E. K. Abbott; the type in my own herbarium.

M. LEIOSPERMA. Large; the many scapes stout, decumbent : leaves rather coarsely pinnate-parted: involucres very many-


flowered and subcampanulate: achenes scarcely 4 lines long, almost columnar, only slightly narrower from the middle up- wards, but this portion vacant, the whole of a light brown approaching straw-color, the usual ribs obsolete and the whole surface smooth, the outer ones more shortly and densely villous than in other species: pappus fully 5 lines long, the dull dark- brown paleæ lanceolate (also cymbiform), strongly appressed- villous but only on and very near the very broad midvein, the _ awn longer than the palea, rather rigid, nearly barbellate.

Near Antioch, Calif., Mrs. Curran, 1886, the type in Herb. Calif. Acad. Some pretty genuine M. attenuata was collected at the same time; but the robust habit and very peculiar smooth achenes mark this rather strongly.

M. ParvuLa. Dwarf, as compared with M. attenuata ; only 2 or 3 inches high, but with long cylindric involucres large in proportion: achenes light-brown, 3 lines long, almost cylindric, the only slightly narrower upper and vacant portion of the peri- carp comparatively short; none villous, all with serrulate-scab- rous striae; pappus white, the narrower cymbiform palea densely white-villous, surmounted by a subplumose awn of about its own length.

Hill tops near Antioch, Calif., Mrs. Curran, 1883 or 1884. The plant was at first named by me, in the Calif. Acad. herba- rium as a variety of M. attenuata.

M. Parisuir, Greene, Bull. Calif, Acad. ii, 46, in part, and as to the plant of Parish only. As to the habit, involucre, ete. much like M. attennata, but achenes only 23 lines long, scarcely narrower at summit (though not filled by the seed), and almost colummar; lanceolate paleæ of the pappus glabrous, very dark- colored, as long as the achene itself, and attenuate toa much, shorter awn, this little more than a line long.

The originals of my former M. Parishii, when all their char- acters have been duly considered, are seen to represent three species. Dr. Parry’s specimen is allied to M. Bigelovit, if not, indeed, a form of that species; and my own specimens from


San Diego, with white pappus, have already formed the basis of my new M. breviseta.

That subdivision of Mrieroseris marked by variously triangular and almost or quite plane pappus-pales does not differ, habitally, from the other subdivisions; but the differentiation of species is more difficult and doubtful. Taking M. Bigelovit, the original member of it, as the type of the group, it is certain that it was

an aggregate species from the very first; for, immediately upon the publication of so strongly characterized a plant as my M. acuminata, I had word from Dr. Gray, who at once recognized its validity, that he had been in possession of a specimen of it even from Bigelow, and that it had entered into the composition of his original M. Bigeloviz. How many others may have been a part of that species, or what one particular form should be left under that name, I know not. Taking the figures in Whip- ple’s Report, plate xvii, representing a villous achene from the outer circle, and a glabrous one from the disk, and their pappus, as typical, it still remains difficult to settle upon a type, so very numerous are the forms making more or less near approach to what these figures seem to represent.

My earliest opinion, formed after several years of field study of them, was that certain smaller plants common on hillsides

and dry sandy land generally, were the real Æ. Bigelovii, and that a larger plant, one never seen but along the Bay shores, on sandy elevations amid patches of Salicornia and Cakile, was to be new. Yet, before I came to the point of publishing I had reversed the opinion, and took the small upland plant for the new one, naming it M. intermedia.’ At present I find myself forced back again to my earliest view, namely, that the smaller and upland plant—my own M. intermedia—if not the absolute M. Bigelovit, is an aggregate embracing it; and I here offer a diagnosis of the exclusively lowland species, under the name I assigned it in manuscript in the year 1886.

1 ERYTHEA, iii, 100.


M. CASTANEA. M. Bigelovii, Greene, Man. 222, not of Gray. Usually a foot high, not rarely ever taller, the deeply simply and regularly pinnatifid or pinnatisect foliage nearly half as long : involucres hemispherical, more than 4 inch broad: achenes barely 2 lines long, short-columnar, or the yellowish-villous outer ones inclining to turbinate, the others chestnut-color, very smooth to the unaided eye, but the thick ribs under a strong lens obscurely and minutely scabrous; pappus fully 5 lines long, consisting of a lanceolate palea of 1 to 14 lines long, usu- ally whitish or pale, and a long slender barbellulate chestnut- brown awn.

Confined to sandy elevations among the low salt-marshes of the shores of San Francisco Bay; the type specimens now in the California Academy collected by myself at West Oakland, 10 May, 1883, and near Belmont, San Mateo Co.. 10 May, 1886. The longer and almost columnar achenes, and the long whitish pappus-pales, together with the great size of the plant, upright growth, and peculiarly maritime habitat impel the recognition of the species as distinct from its much more variable and diffi- cult ally, M. Bigelovit.

M. tnstents. As tall as M. castanea, like it in habit, but

leaves (in the only known specimens) narrowly oblanceolate and merely short-toothed; the tall scapes only 1 or 2, the heads round-ovate: achenes of outer series and of disk all alike, and all densely villous in lines (between the ribs), the ribs faintly scaberulous; palex of the pappus dark-colored, subulate, scaberulous and often more or less appressed-pubescent, scarcely a line long, entire, tapering to a stout subplumose awn of about 3 lines. _ Known only in a single sheet of few specimens preserved in the California Academy, and labelled, in the handwriting of Mrs. Curran, as having been collected by myself in 1886. But this must have been, I think, a mere guess, and a wrong one. I could not have overlooked, in 1886, such pronounced specific characters as are here evident.


M. PULCHELLA. Numerous scapes strongly decumbent, 3 to 7 inches high, the leaves half as high, loosely pinnatisect, the segments narrowly linear, entire, the terminal one thrice the size of the others: involucres almost hemispherical: achenes oblong, 2 lines long, the outer minutely and densely white-silky ; the others chestnut-color, their thickish ribs either very deli- cately or almost obsoletely scabrous; pappus-palex very short, deltoid, densely white-villous, the whitish awn several times longer and of about the length of the achene, obscurely barbel- lulate.

This, the most elegant of species as to the beauty of its achene and pappus, was collected by myself somewhat copiously, at a certain point among the hills east of the Livermore Valley, Alameda Co., Calif., 2 May, 1895, and is not otherwise known. It is allied to M. aphantocarpha, but is a smaller plant, well distinguished by ihe dense silkness of its minute pappus-pales.

M. A$TRATA. Also related to M. aphantocarpha, about a foot high, the irregularly and falcately cut leaves 8 or 10 inches long; involucres large and many-flowered, hemispherical : achenes oblong-linear, 24 lines long, only one here and there among the outer series yillous-pubescent, all the others very light- colored, their ribs minutely but very sharply serrulate-spinu- lose: pappus of very small ovate acute dark-colored glabrous or merely scabrulous palex, and long tawny awn, the whole quite notably longer than the achene. :

This is also from the hills east of Livermore, near Midway, collected by myself, 3 May, 1895. The palea is here much more elongated than in M. aphantocarpha, and is rather far from being plane, though not involute as in the other group. True M. aphantocarpha occurs in this same region, and of luxu” riant growth.

M. sTENOCARPHA. Foliage slenderly and almost pectinately pinnatifid, the segments very narrowly linear, mostly straight and nearly divaricate, the leaf as a whole quite surpassing the


flowering scapes and almost equalling the fruiting ones, these 6 to 10 inches high: heads round-ovoid, less than 4 inch high: achenes 1} lines long, short-columnar inclining to turbinate, the outer villous somewhat in lines, the others smooth, even the ribs not perceptibly scabrous under an ordinary strong lens; paleæ of the pappus 1 line long, slenderly subulate-lanceolate, remotely serrate-toothed, very thin, the delicate awn nearly 2 lines long, merely scaberulous, the whole pappus chestnut-brown.

Near Byron Springs, Calif., 24 March, 1889, collected by myself ; also near Chico, ©. C. Parry, 1881.

M. CAMPESTRIS. Near the preceding, like it in size, habit heads, etc., but leaves less narrowly pinnatisect: achenes also in size and form much the same, rather larger, but more villous, the outer with thickened ribs obscurely roughened, those of the inner minutely but very saliently spinulose-serrulate ; the pappus distinctive, consisting of nearly white ovate-lanceolate entire glabrous palew of a line long, and a tawny barbellulate awn somewhat longer.

The type is from Byron Springs, Calif., 24 March, 1889, col- lected by the writer. Sufficiently at agreement with it is a sheet of specimens from the same tract of interior plains further south, collected 28 March, 1886, by Dr. T. J. Patterson. I hesi- tate to refer to it a plant from Stony Creek in the Santa Lucia Mountains, May, 1897, collected by Miss Eastwood; for its pappus-palex are shorter, and are serrate-toothed, as in M. Bige- loviť (i, e. my former M. intermedia).

M.cognata. Allied to M. acuminata, but smaller in all its parts, the decumbent-scapes slender, 3 to 6 inches high: involu- cres narrowly turbinate: achenes only 2 lines long, linear- fusiform, chestnut-brown, the ribs only delicately scabrous- serrulate; pappus 6 lines long, the paleæ linear-lanceolate, loosely appressed-villous both externally and within, tapering to a barbellulate awn of only about 2 lines’ length.

Known only as collected by myself on the plains of the inte


rior of California near Fresno, April, 1884, and at the time re- ferred to my then recently published M. acuminata ; from which it must needs be held distinct on account of its smoother achenes and villous pappus-pales, this last being a new character for a species of this group.

M. oBTUsATA, Stoutish, low, perhaps sometimes depressed the scapes 3 to 7 inches high, the flowering ones almost equalled by the leaves, these somewhat lyrately pinnatifid, the large ter- minal segment oval, the others more nearly oblong, all very obtuse, mucronulate: involucres more than } inch high, sub- globose, the calyculate outer series of bracts uncommonly large for the genus, and imbricate in two or three series: achenes subclavate-cylindric, 2 lines long, the outer strongly villous in lines, the inner with ribs scabrous-serrulate, light brown, flecked with short linear dots of purple; pappus of subquadrate-lanceo- late lacerate-toothed translucent but dark smoky-brown palee and almost twice longer awns.

Bodega Point, Sonoma Co., Calif., 1899 and 1900, Miss East- wood. Perhaps also the same, by the same, from Point San Pedro, San Mateo Co., 1899; but this last has darker spotless achenes and a rather different almost entire pappus-pale.

M. MARITIMA. Near the last, larger, but much more slender, commonly much depressed: leaves mostly of oblanceolate out- line, the lowest often quite entire, some merely dentate, the greater number pinnatifid, but leaving a large oblong or oval obtuse entire terminal lobe: heads round-ovoid, less than } inch high :achenes narrow-turbinate, only 13 lines long, the outer silky-villous, the others partly with obtuse smooth ribs and partly with ribs more acute and finely scabrous-serrulate; pappus- palex ovate-trigonous thin, white, subentire, scarcely a line long terminating in an awn of almost 3 lines.

On open bluffs overhanging the sea at Pacific Grove, Monterey Co., Calif., 27 May, 1895, collected by the writer.



Referring to page 161 of Gray’s Synoptical Flora, Volume ii, Part 1, it will be seen that the author places in the midst of a group of annual species of Phacelia the P. ramosissima of Douglas, which he admits, on the testimony of the present writer, to be a perennial, This plant had always been supposed to be, like P. tanacetifolia and P. ciliata between which was placed, as strictly annual as they. Branches of the plants in the herbaria had more than once been mistaken by hastily and superficial observers, for those of Z. tanacetifolia. But neither real P. ramosissima nor any of its segregates bear any other than a remote likeness to the annual species named, as one sees them growing. The fragments of them that get into collections seem to convey no notion of habital peculiarities of this which must be con- sidered a very well marked group of kindred species. Not only are they tufted perennials, but their stems are excessively elon- gated and are either strongly decumbent, or assurgent, or even trailing and half climbing over shrubs and bushes or rocks among which they grow.

Soon after the announcement was made of the perennial character of P. ramosissima, the late Dr. C. C. Parry proposed the first segregate from Gray’s aggregate, under the very apt name of P., suffrutescens. This is a Californian seaboard species, and seems to be the only one of the group which exhibits a really half-shrubly stem, the lower part of which always survives the winter and is woody.

The first of the new species proposed is represented in that North California plant, the perennial duration which I was first to note.

P. DECUMBENS. Perennial, the slender stems two feet long or more, decumbent, or even, almost trailing, minutely pubescent


and glandular, simple to near the summit, then divaricately branched, each branch ending in a pair of short almost divari- cate circinate spikes: leaves thin and dilicate, pinnate below the middle, above it the pinne confluent, all coarsely and somewhat incisely toothed: calyx subsessile, its segments broadly (almost obovately) oblanceolate, tapering below to a narrow linear base, densely villous-hirsute mostly marginally, also glandular, faintly 1-nerved: corolla pale purplish; stamens long-exserted: cap- sule very small, oval, villous; seeds 2, or often 1 only.

The type of this excellent species is my n. 896, collected near Yreka, California, 28 June, 1876, and distributed for P. ramo- sissima. It ranges southward in Calif. to Lake Co., where it has been collected by Jepson.

P. BIFURCA. Forani like the last two, but stoutish and rigidly erect, paniculately branched at summit or above the middle; herbage grayish with a close indument of minute sharp hairs from a pustulate base, the stem and branches more sparsely clothed with straight spreading hairs, the smaller of them gland- tipped: leaves narrow and pinnate or pinnatifid, the pinnules oval and incised, the rachis hispidulous; peduncles rigidly as- cending, divergently forked, each fork with a pair of divergent spikes: sepals with ovate-elliptic blade longer than the slender basal portion, this very hispid, but the blade not so except mar- ginally, its surface above the middle merely scabrous; corolla short, but the limb widely spreading ; anthers exserted: capsule ovoid, villous-strigose; seeds 4, long-oval.

Mountains near Tehachapi, Kin Co., California, 22 June, 1889; collected by the writer only.

P. FasTIGIATA. Perennial, allied to the last, evidently larger, probably several feet high, upright, stout, fastigiately branched ; foliage more ample, greener, the lobes broad and very obtuse; pubescence fine and dense, but softer, the hairs not pustulate: peduncles very short or obsolete and the spikes in threes; sepals notably unequal, one much larger than the others, all oblanceo- _


late, attenuate to a filiform base, hispidulous throughout ; corolla nearly funnelform ; stamens exserted: capsule large, more than half as long as the calyx, ovate, acute, 4-seeded; seeds ovate- elliptic.

Known only from some uncertain station in the mountains of Kern Co., California; collected by Palmer and Wright in 1888 and bearing, in my set of that collection, the number 205 ; prob- ably distributed for P. ramosissima.

P. POLYSTACHYA. Near P. suffrutescens, probably also suffru- tiscent, the stout decumbent stems several feet long, villous- pubescent and softly hispid, somewhat freely branched from above the middle, the branches all short and twice dichotomous, the very short geminate and widely divergent spikes very nu- merous: leaves half as long as in P. suffrutescens and of only half as many pinne, otherwise quite similar, sepals spatulate, hispid and with also a close villous short indument: corolla small: stamens exserted.

At Witch Oreek, San Diego Co., Calif., R. D. Anderson, 1893. I have always regarded Parry’s P. suffrutescens of the Santa Bar- bara region one of the most valid species of the genus, though Gray reduced it; and here, from the border of Lower California, we have its analogue, though a more distinct species by charac- ters of foliage, inflorescence, and of the individual flower.

P. SUBSINUAaTA. Perennial? slender, pale and subcinereous with a close appressed pubescence, a few short hispid hairs on the branches and petioles and becoming more numerous on the long naked peduncle and pedicels the twice forked cyme: leaves 12 inches long, of oval outline but deeply and sinuately pin- natifid, the broad lobes rounded, obtuse, entire: spikes very short; sepals oblanceolate, obtuse, finely appressed-pubescent and rather strongly hispid-ciliate: corolla apparently open-funnel-

orm; stamens long exserted. . _ The only representation extant of this has been in my her- barium for more than fifteen years, awaiting further material ; for this is a mere branch with leaves and flowers. It was ob-


tained in the San Rafael Mountains, Santa Barbara Co., Calf, in 1886, by Mr. John Spence. It seems to bear the general marks of that group of perennial species of which Z. ramo- sissima is assumed to be the type; yet it is extremely different from the others in several respects.

P. EREMOPHILA. Allied to the last, larger and coarser, with more branched and straggling stem, equally thin leaves, the whole herbage green and almost glabrous; the stems minutely and sparsely hispid with deflexed hairs, the ample and pinnatifid obtusely toothed